Net-Zero Scenarios: Overlooked Role of Consumers

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Most net-zero scenarios assume limited behavioral changes and mainly rely on technology and policy to achieve carbon neutrality. In contrast, the French Agency for Ecological Transition (Ademe) has just released a group of four scenarios — labeled S1 to S4 — ranging from low-tech energy "sobriety" involving massive changes in consumer behavior, to high-tech "bets" on technology to preserve lifestyles. While they only cover France, Ademe's scenarios provide valuable insight that could apply to the rest of Europe and, to some extent, to other industrialized countries as well as emerging countries.

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